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Incorporating technology into the classroom

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Reforms of Education

Over the past few years there has been an increase in the production of technological devices like smartphones, ipads and tablets. According to the NMC Horizon report “… 61% of Americans age 12 and up own a mobile device, and 44% specifically own a smart phone…” (Johnson, Adams, Cummins, 2012, p. 15). The creation of Web 2.0 “not only accelerates the development of diverse communities but also promotes socialization of the Internet” (Huang et al., 2009). Social media like Face book, Skype, and LinkedIn are tools that can be used to access and share educational information on the internet.

The introduction of technology in educational institutions can help implement learning theories like the “Conditions of learning theory” (Gagne, 1985). This theory states that “… there are different levels of learning… which requires different types of instructions” (Gagne, 1985, para. 1). This theory has nine different processes which are gaining attention, informing learners of the objective, stimulating recall of prior learning, presenting the stimulus, providing learning guidance, eliciting performance, providing feedback, assessing performance and enhancing retention and transfer. Children are drawn to activities that they enjoy doing. A good way of presenting this theory to a classroom full of children will be to use game-based learning. These games which are “open-ended … can draw on skills for research, writing, collaboration, problem solving, public speaking, leadership, digital literacy, and media making…” (Johnson, Adams, Cummins, 2012, p. 25). All nine learning processes can be incorporated in this technology.
Another area within which technology can play a vital role is the formal learning sector. Formal learning is “usually characterized by learners in classes being taught by teachers who deliver comprehensive, multi-year curricula…” (Coombs, 1985). This type of learning takes place in a structured setting. The instructor dictates the length of courses and the contents. Formal learning is compulsory and intentional. This kind of learning is usually seen from K-12 grade. By introducing informal learning which is a “lifelong process of learning by which people acquire and accumulate knowledge, skills, attitudes and insights through intention … from a life time of experience” (Schwier, 2010, p. 2), students will feel more responsible for the outcome of their studies.
In order for educators to incorporate informal learning into formal learning Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) can be formed to help teachers learn more about the importance of technology and its benefit. Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) are mainly found amongst educators. The members are professionals who meet on a regular basis to discuss ways and means by which they can improve upon their performance and that of their students. They also share problems pertaining to their classrooms. By sharing resources, the educators are able to find solutions to the problems they encounter. These meetings do not only grant the professionals confidence in their career but it also gives them the necessary strategies to become great at what they do. Educators have their confidence boosted because they know they have a team of colleagues who are willing to help them become better educators.

The vast availability of information out there in the technological world calls for a reform of the way learning is structured. Informal learning will enable encourage students to contribute towards the success of their education. PLCs gives teachers the platform to discuss pertinent issues regarding their students and creating strategies that will help their students become successful.

References
Coombs, P. H. (1985). The world crisis in education: The view from the Eighties. New

York: Oxford.

Gagne, R. (1985). The conditions of learning (4th). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Retrieved June 27th 2013 from

http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/conditions-learning.html

Johnson, L., Adams, S., & Cummins, M. (2012). The NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher

Education Edition. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium

Shwier, R. A. (2010). Focusing educational technology research on informal learning
environments. Contemporary Educational Technology, 1(1), 90-92.

Cognitive Science is the interdisciplinary study of cognition which includes mental states and processes such as thinking, reasoning, remembering, language studying, visual and auditory perception, learning, consciousness, and emotions. (Rapaport, 1986, p. 1) Cognitive science also deals with the processes of the mind which is best explained by “mental representation” (Thagard, 2012, para. 11) which can be compared to the computer data structure. The mind processes information through formal logic, concepts, analogies, images and rules.

 

Concept is an idea, plan or intention one conceives in the human mind. Great inventions like the production of the electric bulb or the operation of electricity was as a result of the conception of an idea. In the classroom, children demonstrate the ideas they have through the creation of structures they build with blocks and Lego and their creative paintings during art projects.

 

Formal logic seeks to find out how the mind reasons. It deals with the thought processes of the mind. There are two kinds of reasoning; inductive and deductive reasoning. (Barbey & Barsalou, 2009, p. 1) Inductive reasoning takes place when there is insufficient evidence to support a conclusion drawn. For instance, in a classroom full of two year olds, Child A is seen playing with Lego blocks. Child B goes over to Child A and takes the Lego blocks. Child A gets very upset and goes over to his teacher who retrieves the toy. The next time Child A sees Child B approaching when he is playing he assumes Child B will automatically take his toys. Child A arrives at this conclusion based on his previous experience not taking into consideration that the intentions of Child B in this second scenario may be totally different. On the other hand, deductive reasoning occurs when one has sufficient evidence that supports their reasoning. For instance a child sees dark clouds and rain pouring outside and says that there will not be any recess time today. Based on his previous experience of not going outside to play when it rained, he knows that there will not be any recess time.

 

Rules are based on the probability that a certain result will be achieved when a particular action is taken. The “If… Then…” rule is used to make this assumption. (Thagard, 2012, para. 15) For example, if you use your walking feet then you will not fall and hurt yourself. Children are encouraged to walk when they are inside the classroom. Rules ensure there is order in a community. They give guidelines to how an activity should be handled and how each participant should be treated. The children in the block area are informed that they need to build with their wooden blocks. If they throw the blocks at their friends then they will have to leave the block area. Rules are usually associated with incentives and rewards. Students are sometimes rewarded with stickers when they help to clean the classroom.

 

Images are the mental picture the mind paints when it processes information. This painting is based on prior experience or information acquired. For instance, in the classroom an educator presents materials for activities through images. Flashcards and posters of items under discussion are displayed for the children to have a mental picture of what the educator is teaching. Children are asked to think about objects, describe them by stating their shapes and colors. They perform these functions by using their imagination.

Analogies involve solving problems and making decisions by comparing two events or things. Problem solving refers broadly to the inferential steps that lead from a given state of affairs to a desired goal state. (Barbey & Barsalou, 2009, p. 1) It involves the process of planning, execution, motivation and reasoning. Different sides of the brain are utilized during the problem solving process. If the tasks are well structured … the left prefrontal cortex … (Barbey & Barsalou, 2009, p. 5) is utilized. When the tasks are ill structured the … right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex…” utilized. (Barbey & Barsalou, 2009, p. 5-6). One of the ways students are motivated to solve problems is through project-based assignments. They are made to work in groups and brainstorm to find solution to the problem given.

Another aspect of cognitive science deals with the different learning styles; active, reflective, intuitive, global, sensing, sequential, verbal and visual. (Felder & Solomon, 2003).  Active learners need to be included in discussions to fully comprehend what they are studying. On the other hand reflective learners need some time to process the information they are receiving in order for them to fully understand their course work. Sensing learners need information they are receiving connected to daily occurrences in the world. Intuitive learners should be encouraged to read over their assignments and tests to avoid making mistakes since they get bored with repetition. Visual learners have a better chance of retaining information in the classroom when they have a visual of what they are studying. Information should be presented in images, graphs and chart for better comprehension. Verbal learners need to be encouraged to verbalize whatever they are studying in their own words. This will enable them to recall information better for later use. Sequential learners need materials presented in a logical format and global learners need to be encouraged to take their time to grasp the information being presented since they learn in leaps and bounds.

Educators play a major role in motivating their students to study. Students are either motivated or not motivated to study due to the atmosphere created by the educator in the classroom. On the commencement of a new course, the educator needs to capture the attention of his students by establishing “a tone of enticement” (Perkins, 2009 p. 63). This can be accomplished by getting the students involved right from the onset; allowing them to give their opinion about what they think about the course and what kind of expectations they have. The educator can arouse the interest of the students when he assures them that he the educator will be gaining a lot from their input. In other words the educator does not have all the answers to the questions. The collaboration from the educator and the students will determine the success of the learning process. Educators who do not acknowledge new students into their classroom create the impression that the students are not welcome. It will take such students a longer period to adjust to the new teacher and classmates. On the contrary, students who feel welcome settle down easily and faster.

The modern day educator is taught seven principles in David Perkins’ book “Making Learning Whole”. These principles are “play the whole game”, “make the game worth playing”, “play out of town”, “work on the hard parts”, “uncover the hidden game”, “learn from the team” and “learn the learning game”. (Perkins, 2009) Educators are encouraged to step away from the traditional way of teaching and motivate their students to connect with their world through what they are studying. Students should also be presented with opportunities to work on areas in their student lives that are challenging. If students make mistakes in a particular course they should be given the chance to work on their mistakes as specific instructions are given to them to help them correct their mistakes. Educators can adopt methods of teaching in which small and large group discussions are held to help students assess each other’s work as well as develop their problem solving skills.

The educator who understands cognitive science stands a better chance of producing successful students.

 

 

References

Barbey A. K. & Barsalou L. W. (2009). Reasoning and problem solving: Models.

                 Retrieved from   

 

http://psychology.emory.edu/cognition/barsalou/papers/Barbey_Barsalou_Enclopedia_Neuroscience_2009_reasoning.pdf on June 16th 2013

 

Felder R. M. & Solomon B. A. (2013).  Learning styles and strategies. Retrieved

                 June 16th 2013 from

                 http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSdir/styles.html

 

Perkins D. (2009). Making learning whole. How seven principles of teaching can               

               

                 transform education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

 

Pessoa L. (2009). Cognition and emotion. Scholarpedia 4 (1):4567. Retrieved  June

 

                16th 2013 from http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Cognition_and_emotion

           

Thagard P. (2012). Cognitive Science. The Stanford encyclopedia of Philosophy.              

                 Retrieved from

                 http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2012/entries/cognitive-science on   

                 June 16th 2013

The role of the educator in the lives of students is very important. The first impression students form of  their courses goes a long way to affect their input into their studies as the journey learning progresses. The introductions of the course by the educator, the involvement of his students, the contents of the curriculum are factors that determine the success of the student.

 

 Students are either motivated or not motivated to study by the atmosphere created by the educator in the classroom. On the commencement of the new course the educator needs to capture the attention of his students by establishing “a tone of enticement” (Perkins, 2009 p. 63). This can be accomplished by getting the students involved right from the onset; allowing them to give their opinion about what they think about the course and what kind of expectations they have. The educator can arouse the interest of the students when he assures them that he as an educator will be gaining a lot from their input. In other words the educator does not have all the answers to the questions. The collaboration from the educator and the students will determine the success of the learning process.  For instance, when a new puzzle is presented to a class of two year olds, an educator can adopt the approach of  students-educator coming together to fix it. This will create the impression that the lecturer does not know it all and is willing to help the students solve it and on the other hand, the students are not frustrated thinking they are going to fix the puzzle entirely on their own. 

 

Another important factor that gets students interested in what they are learning is the contents of a curriculum.  There is the need for a “…connected rather than a disconnected curriculum, a curriculum full of knowledge of the right kind to link rightly to future insights…” (Perkins, 2009 p. 57).  Students will show more interest in a topic under discussion when they are challenged to think of the direct impact the topic has on their lives and their society. As Perkins puts it education should “enlighten”, “empower” and cause the student to take “responsibility” (Perkins, 2009 p. 61). The knowledge passed on from the lecturer to the learner should have these 3 components.  The students should gain an understanding of what they are being taught. The information should give them the appropriate ideas to look for in similar situations and then take the necessary action when the need arises.

 

An educator needs to portray the right emotions when teaching. When educators show interest and enthusiasm in what they are presenting, students’ are more likely to participate in discussions and activities. Students are more likely to “…remember better emotionally arousing information, including emotionally charged stories, film clips, pictures, and words…” (Pessoa, 2009).   The ability for the students to retain the information gained in the classroom depends to a large extent on how the information is presented. Illustrations used in the classroom should appeal to all different learning types which are “active, reflective, intuitive, sensing, visual, verbal, sequential and global learners”. (Felder & Solomon, 2003).

 

One other major factor educators need to work on is helping the students deal with “hard parts”. (Perkins, 2009 p. 10) According to Perkins in his book “Making Learning Whole”, students are not given enough opportunity to work on the “hard parts”. The hard parts are the errors students make constantly and which they have not the slightest clue as to how to correct them.  Educators can help students deal with these areas by creating the right time to have students work on their areas of difficulties. It may require a little bit of sacrifice from the educator who may need to stay late and offer tutorials for students to gain a better understanding  or the educator may recommend a special program that can help the student work independently and at their own pace to better themselves. With the latter, the educator must do well to follow up to see how well the students have improved. Educators could also do “on-going assessment”. (Perkins, 2009 p. 83). This assessment is different from the regular assessment done to see how well students are progressing. On-going assessment involves assessing the activities the students engage in to ensure “learning is stronger”. One strategy that can be used to ensure learning is strong is by engaging in “peer and self assessment”. (Perkins, 2009 p. 84). Students will be assessed by their fellow students when given projects and assignments. This takes some of the burden of the educator who is pressed may be pressed for time.

 

When educators take it upon themselves to address the topics discussed above, students will have a better learning experience.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Felder R. M. & Solomon B. A. (2013).  Learning styles and strategies. Retrieved

                June 2nd 2013 from                                  

                http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSdir/styles.html                     

Perkins D. (2009). Making learning whole. How seven principles of teaching can

 

               transform education San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

 

Pessoa L. (2009). Cognition and emotion. Scholarpedia 4 (1):4567. Retrieved  June

 

              2nd 2013 from http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Cognition_and_emotion

           

 

 

Additional resource

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ecfqlxi7lvw .This video gives practical examples why teachers need to keep their students motivated and engaged when presenting their course.

“Cognitive Science is the interdisciplinary study of the mind and intelligence, embracing philosophy, psychology artificial intelligence, neuroscience, linguistics and anthropology.” (Thagard, 2012 para1). The study of the brain and mind helps the educator understand how students process information. Cognitive scientists assume that the mind functions based on “mental representations” (Thagard, 2012 para 10). These representations can best be explained through formal logic, rules, images, concepts and analogies. The function of the mind is compared to that of the computer. Theorists believe that the mind is able to analyze, make deductions and conduct searches like the computer does.

Formal logic seeks to find out how the mind reasons. It deals with the thought processes of the mind. There are two kinds of reasoning; inductive and deductive reasoning. (Barbey & Barsalou 2009 p 1) Inductive reasoning takes place when there is insufficient evidence to support a conclusion drawn. For instance, in a classroom full of two year olds, Child A is seen playing with Lego blocks. Child B goes over to Child A and takes the Lego blocks. Child A gets very upset and goes over to his teacher who is able to retrieve the toy. The next time Child A sees Child B approaching when he is playing he assumes Child B will automatically take his toys. Child A arrives at this conclusion based on his previous experience not taking into consideration that the intentions of Child B in this second scenario may be totally different. Deductive reasoning is inferred based on evidence. For instance, the children in the classroom do not go out for recess when it rains so when it starts to thunder, one child walks to his teacher and states that they will not be playing outside today because it is about to rain. Rules are based on the probability that a certain result will be achieved when a particular action is taken. The “If… Then…” rule is used to make this assumption. An example of this rule is, if you provide quality customer care to your clients then you will have a high percentage of client retention. Concepts can be explained as the ideas that the mind forms when presented with information. The brain is said to analyze information by making comparison between the information it receives and the information it has already gained.

Another aspect of Cognitive Science deals with the different learning styles; active, reflective, intuitive, global, sensing, sequential, verbal and visual. (Felder & Solomon 2003). This study deals with the strengths and weaknesses of each learning style. The verbal learner will not benefit that much from information presented visually. A verbal learner will need an explanation of what the information is all about. A sequential learner will need details presented in a step by step format. An active learner will need to have a hands-on experience with information presented to fully grasp and have an understanding of what it entails. An intuitive learner thinks through every minute detail to gain understanding. A sensing learner needs to connect information to facts of life. The global learner is able to solve problems quickly without having an explanation on how they were about to do it. Educators need to take into consideration the different learning styles of their students. If a child is finding difficulties in participating in an interesting activity it is possible that the activity has not been presented in a form that aligns with the student’s learning style. The education needs to observe each child to know what learning style they use.

The understanding of the functions of the mind gives the educator the necessary knowledge in setting the right environment as well as the right activities that stimulates the mind of students so their learning process is enhanced. Providing the right environment ensures the learning process is a success. The information about the different learning styles will enable educators to provide curriculum in a variety of ways so each student is able to fully participate in any classroom activity.

References

Barbey A. K. & Barsalou L. W. 2009 Reasoning and problem solving: models
Felder R. M. & Solomon B. A. (2013). Learning styles and strategies. Retrieved
May 19th 2013 from
http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSdir/styles.html
Picture retrieved May 19 2013 from https://www.google.com/search?hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1093&bih=514&q=the+brain+for+kids&oq=the+brain&gs_l=img.1.3.0l10.5352.8367.0.12130.9.7.0.1.1.0.431.1396.0j5j1j0j1.7.0…0.0…1ac.1.14.img.Q6clTefb4HE#imgrc=YtA5sadYgPp9wM%3A%3B0IqVasQtwXNBvM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.aan.com%252Fglobals%252Faxon%252Fassets%252F7806.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.aan.com%252Fgo%252Fam11%252Famco%252Fhealthfair%3B593%3B340
Thagard P. 2012. Cognitive Science. The Stanford encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved
from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2012/entries/cognitive-science on
May 9 2013

This is the link to the resource

http://content.ebscohost.com/pdf23_24/pdf/2009/1CMJ/01Oct09/44785094.pdf?T=P&P=AN&K=44785094&S=R&D=ehh&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHr7ESep7c4y9f3OLCmr0ueqLFSrqy4SK6WxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMOzprkm1qbFOuejjhe3q41Pj3u2L8gAA